Stones

Calcite

Calcite

Calcite 

Calcite, calcite, calcspar or double spar, is a very frequently occurring mineral from the mineral class of "carbonates and nitrates" with the chemical composition Ca[CO3] and thus chemically seen calcium carbonate.

Calcite crystallizes in the trigonal crystal system and develops different crystal or aggregate forms (habitus). In its pure form calcite is colourless and transparent. Due to multiple refraction of light due to lattice defects or polycrystalline formation, calcite can also appear white, with a corresponding decrease in transparency, and can take on a yellow, pink, red, blue, green, brown or black color through foreign admixtures.

Some information in this copy may have been obtained from the online resource: Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.

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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcite


Snake Stone

Snake Stone

Snake Stone

The serpentine group (Latin: serpens, Greek: Ophit, Serpentine) refers to a group in the monoclinic crystal system of crystallizing silicate minerals with the chemical composition (Mg,Fe,Ni)6Si4O10(OH)8. The metal atoms in brackets can represent each other in any mixture, but are always in the same ratio to the other atomic groups. Serpentine has a relatively low hardness of 2.5 to 4, a mostly olive green, but occasionally also yellow, brown, red, grey, black or white color and a white line color.

Some information in this copy may have been obtained from the online resource: Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.

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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serpentine_subgroup


Gritstone (Sandstone)

Gritstone (Sandstone)

Gritstone (Sandstone)

Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock containing at least 50 % grains of sand, i.e. grains which, according to the general definition of sand grain size, are between 0,063 and 2 mm in size. The sand grains consist of various minerals, but mostly quartz.

Some information in this copy may have been obtained from the online resource: Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.

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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandstone


Marble

Marble

Marble

Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Marble is typically not foliated, although there are exceptions. In geology, the term "marble" refers to metamorphosed limestone, but its use in stonemasonry more broadly encompasses unmetamorphosed limestone. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material.

Some information in this copy may have been obtained from the online resource: Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.

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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marble


Gesso

Gesso

Gesso

Gesso is a white paint mixture consisting of a binding agent with gypsum, chalk, pigment or a combination of these binding agents and describes the traditional priming on canvas. In art, the mixture is used as a base for paint and other materials for preparation on various surfaces such as wooden boards, canvases and sculptures.

Some information in this copy may have been obtained from the online resource: Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.

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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gesso


Limestone

Limestone

Limestone (Grey rock)

Limestone is the name given to sedimentary rocks consisting mainly of the chemical substance calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the form of the minerals calcite and aragonite.

Limestone is an extremely variable rock; this concerns its formation as well as its properties, appearance and economic usability. There is therefore a special field within geology, carbonate sedimentology, which deals exclusively with the formation and properties of the various types of limestone. Most limestones are of biogenic origin (formed by living organisms), but there are also chemically precipitated and clastic limestones.

Limestone is of enormous economic importance as a raw material for the construction industry and as a natural stone. Furthermore, such deposits are storage rocks for crude oil and natural gas.

Some information in this copy may have been obtained from the online resource: Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.

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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limestone


Phosphorite

Phosphorite

Phosphorite

Phosphorite is a marine sedimentary rock that occurs in layers with other marine rocks, mostly limestones.

The rock phosphorite is used as a raw material for the production of phosphorus, especially for fertilizer production and in the chemical industry. Known occurrences of phosphorite - partly in concretions - can be found on Nauru (almost exhausted), in Morocco, Florida, Tunisia, Estonia and Algeria.

Some information in this copy may have been obtained from the online resource: Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.

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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphorite


Shale

Shale

Shale

Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite. Shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness, called fissility. It is the most common sedimentary rock.

Some information in this copy may have been obtained from the online resource: Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.

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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shale


Plant fossil

Plant fossil

Plant fossil

A fossil (Latin fossilis "excavated") is any testimony of past life in the history of the earth that is older than 10,000 years and can thus be assigned to a geological age before the beginning of the Holocene. Such geological documents can be physical remains of living beings (body fossils) as well as evidence of their activity (trace fossils).  For example, fossilized footprints and excrements (coproliths) are also counted as fossils. The formation of fossils is called fossilisation. The exploration of fossils is primarily carried out by palaeontology.

Some information in this copy may have been obtained from the online resource: Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.

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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fossil


Pencil stone

Pencil stone

Pencil stone

Pencil stone (also known as soapstone) is a naturally occurring, massive or slate chemical substance which, depending on its composition, is considered a mineral or a rock. Its main component is talc; in its pure form it turns soapstone into a mineral. In many deposits, accompanying minerals are added and thus have a colouring and structure-forming effect.  In this case one speaks of a rock. Frequently occurring secondary components are magnesite, serpentine and various chlorites. There are transitional forms to talc slate, talc rock, green slate and chlorite slate.

Due to its low hardness (Mohs hardness = 1) and thus easy workability, soapstone was already a popular natural and cast stone in the Ancient Orient, Egypt, China and Scandinavia, which was predominantly used for seals, sculptures and various household objects such as containers and cookware.

Some information in this copy may have been obtained from the online resource: Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.

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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soapstone


Granite

Granite

Granite

Granites (from Latin granum "Korn") are massive and relatively coarse crystalline magmatic deep rocks (Plutonites), which are rich in quartz and feldspars, but also contain dark (mafic) minerals, especially mica. The mnemonic "feldspar, quartz and mica, the three I will never forget" gives a simplified account of the composition of granite. Granite corresponds in its chemical and mineralogical composition to volcanic rhyolite. Granite is usually massive and can be divided into cuboid blocks by horizontal and vertical fissures (three-dimensional fissures). Granite in the roof area of the intrusion is more rarely flat.

Some information in this copy may have been obtained from the online resource: Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.

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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Granite


Green Fluorite

Green Fluorite

Green Fluorite

Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is the mineral form of calcium fluoride, CaF2. It belongs to the halide minerals. It crystallizes in isometric cubic habit, although octahedral and more complex isometric forms are not uncommon.

Fluorite is a colorful mineral, both in visible and ultraviolet light, and the stone has ornamental and lapidary uses. Industrially, fluorite is used as a flux for smelting, and in the production of certain glasses and enamels. The purest grades of fluorite are a source of fluoride for hydrofluoric acid manufacture, which is the intermediate source of most fluorine-containing fine chemicals. Optically clear transparent fluorite lenses have low dispersion, so lenses made from it exhibit less chromatic aberration, making them valuable in microscopes and telescopes. Fluorite optics are also usable in the far-ultraviolet and mid-infrared ranges, where conventional glasses are too absorbent for use.

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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorite


Quartz

Quartz

Quartz 

Quartz, also called deep quartz or ? quartz, is a mineral with the chemical composition SiO2 and trigonal symmetry. It is the stable form (modification) of silicon dioxide on the earth's surface and, after feldspars, the second most common mineral in the earth's crust. At a temperature of over 573 °C (under a pressure of 1 bar) deep quartz changes into high quartz by changing the crystal structure.

Quartz is one of the most important minerals in industry and is of worldwide importance both as a building material and as a raw material for the ceramics, glass and cement industries. Quartz gravel and broken quartz are raw materials for the production of silicon.

Some information in this copy may have been obtained from the online resource: Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.

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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quartz

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